Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum)
Damiana (Turnera diffusa)
Peyote (Lophophora williamsii)
The hyoscyamus plants are nightshades, a genus of the family Solanaceae. They are among the oldest known medicinal herbs and have already been described by Hippocrates (460-370. BC.) as a drug.
Among the 'magical plants' are many medicinal herbs which have already been known since ancient times. Not without reason, people associated them with magical powers, because there are mostly plants that contain psychoactive substances.
The nightshade plant family (Solanaceae) comprises approximately 3000 species. Among those are major crops such as tomatoes and potatoes, but also many medicinal plants.
Incense is made of plants that develop a soothing, aromatic smoke when they are burnt. People have probably been burning incense since they first learned how to make a fire, and the aromatic smoke was more of a coincidental byproduct of the fire.
Shamanism has a very close relationship with plants and shamanic herbs, and with nature in general, trying to connect humans - holistically, with body, mind and spirit - with the cosmos to establish harmony. This is done with the help of the shaman, who is able to move between this world and the world beyond in order to cure diseases and to communicate with "spiritual beings". Many shamanic rituals require special medicinal herbs and plants whose seeds are collected here.
The family of thornapple species is a small grouping of approximately 20 varieties but surprisingly there are plenty of names for the plants botanically referred to as datura, such as: thornapple, jimson weed, devil's trumpets, toloache, locoweed, hell's bells, pricklyburr and moonflowers, amongst many more. Datura plants belong to the family of nightshade plants or Solanaceae).