It would be hard to imagine Thai cooking without chili peppers, but in fact, chilis were only introduced there as a spice in the 16th century, when the Portuguese brought them from South America.
Of the local varities now established in Thailand, one of the most well-known is the 'Prik Kee Noo' which rather comically translates into 'mouse-shit-chili'.
Chili peppers are also popular in South Indian cooking - one of the world's hottest chili varieties, the 'Bih Bhut Naga Jolokia' originates from there.
In Chinese food, we often find quite spicy chili peppers, depending on the region. Traditionally, food was prepared according to the theory of the five elements, of which one, 'metal', is associated with spicy flavours.